Emergency Management is divided into four (4) phases:
Mitigation activities are those that eliminate or reduce the probability of a disaster occurrence. Also included are those long-term activities that lessen the undesirable effects of unavoidable hazards. Some examples include the establishment of building codes, flood plan management, insurance, elevating buildings, and public education programs.
Preparedness activities serve to develop the response capabilities needed in the event of an emergency. Planning, exercising, training and developing public information programs and warning systems are among the activities conducted under this phase.
Response activities include direction and control, warning, evacuation and emergency services and are designed to address immediate and short-term effects of the onset of an emergency or disaster. They help to reduce casualties and damage and to speed recovery.
Recovery includes both short-term and long-term activities. Short-term operations seek to restore critical services to the community and provide for the basic needs of the public. Long-term recovery focuses on restoring the community to its normal or improved state of affairs. The recovery period is also an opportune time to institute mitigation measures, particularly those related to the recent emergency. Examples of recovery actions would be temporary housing and food, restoration of non-vital government services, and reconstruction of damaged areas.